The neurocircuitries subserving affective and olfactory processes overlap, are sexually dimorphic, and show disruptions in schizophrenia, suggesting their intersection may be a window on the core process producing psychosis.
This study investigated diagnostic and sex differences in hedonic judgments of odors and smell identification in 26 schizophrenia cases and 27 healthy controls.
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Associations between olfaction measures and psychiatric symptoms were also examined. Cases and controls had similar identification accuracy of unpleasant odors, but cases were significantly less accurate in naming pleasant odors.
In cases, greater negative symptom severity was related to abnormal hedonic judgments; specifically, higher pleasantness ratings for unpleasant odors and higher unpleasantness ratings for pleasant odors. Greater positive symptom severity was associated with higher pleasantness and unpleasantness ratings for neutral odors.
Regarding sex differences, male cases and female controls rated pleasant odors as significantly more unpleasant than male controls. Correlations between depression severity and pleasantness ratings of neutral odors were in opposite directions in male and female cases.
These results suggest that a normal sexual dimorphism in the circuitry for hedonic odor judgments may interact with schizophrenia pathology, supporting the utility of olfactory hedonics as a sex-specific biomarker of this pathology.
Deficits in emotion processing are a central feature of schizophrenia, yet the relation to schizophrenia pathology remains poorly understood. The limbic system and the central circuitry of emotion processing is closely connected to olfaction circuitry, and olfactory-evoked memories induce stronger affective responses than those evoked by verbal and visual stimuli Herz, ; Willander and Larsson, Impaired smell identification accuracy is consistently reported in schizophrenia reviewed in Moberg et al.
Some studies report similar odor pleasantness ratings for schizophrenia cases and healthy participants Clepce et al.
Negative symptoms, which categorize the social and emotional impairments of schizophrenia, appear to be associated with smell identification deficits Brewer et al. Less is known about the relation between negative symptoms and olfactory hedonics. One study found an association between negative symptoms and reduced range of pleasantness ratings Doop and Park,while in another study, negative symptoms were unrelated to odor valance ratings Kamath et al.
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Similarly, a study that examined olfactory hedonics in the deficit syndrome a form of schizophrenia with primary severe and chronic negative symptomsfound Massage spa silverdale Mariendorf both deficit syndrome and other cases rated unpleasant odors as less unpleasant than healthy participants, but the deficit syndrome cases also rated pleasant odors as less pleasant than other cases and healthy participants Strauss et al.
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